Togo's President Faure Gnassingbé was sworn for a fourth term on Sunday at a subdued ceremony in the capital, Lome.
Mr Gnassingbé won re-election in February but opposition leader Agbéyomé Kodjo has rejected the results. The president's office denies allegations of widespread fraud.
He has led Togo's population of eight million people since 2005 after taking over following the death of his father Gnassingbé Eyadema, who ruled for 38 years.
French public broadcaster RFI reports that Sunday's event was attended by government officials and diplomats.
President of the Constitutional Court Abdou Assouma, who was present, warned against any challenge to the election results, according to RFI.