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SDGs, CSR and ESG: What should be the corporate priority?

By Karen Adaare
Karen Adaare
Karen Adaare
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Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) considerations are concepts that have sought to define how corporate entities should respond to the emerging needs of society and humanity.

Over the years, these concepts have become integral parts of business strategic planning, especially as a means of promoting the long-term sustainable engagement between a company and its stakeholders. The growing prominence of these concepts signifies the realization among companies that, their activities have effects on the people, society, and the environment at large. Although distinct concepts, they converge towards a common overarching goal, - sustainability development.

This article aims to explore the intricate ways in which businesses can pursue the convergence of these uniquely connected concepts that help foster business growth and resilience without committing different resources to different outcomes.



The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by members of the United Nations (UN) in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The goals address a wide array of global challenges including the eradication of poverty to ensuring gender equality, clean water, affordable and clean energy, and sustainable cities and communities among others. The 17 interlinked goals provide a blueprint for sustainable development and encourage countries, organizations, and individuals to collaborate in achieving targets that range from poverty alleviation to clean water provision, climate action, and beyond. The significance of the SDGs lies in their holistic approach, recognizing that environmental protection is inseparable from social progress and economic prosperity. Therefore, by embracing the SDGs, businesses will not only be committing to enhancing human well-being but also to minimizing their ecological footprint and fostering sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on the other hand, is an ethos that obliges companies to contribute positively to society including seeking to address social, economic, and environmental challenges. CSR harmonizes profit-making with philanthropy, as companies proactively align their business practices with ethical and ecological standards. It is a deliberate effort by businesses to ensure that their actions have a positive impact on society. CSR initiatives often encompass a range of activities, such as supporting local communities, reducing environmental impacts (from reducing waste and conserving energy), and promoting ethical labor practices throughout the supply chain. By embedding CSR into their strategies, companies can for example actively contribute to the protection of the environment by minimizing negative impacts, fostering positive change, and setting examples for responsible business conduct.

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) considerations were first introduced in a 2004 report by a joint initiative of financial institutions at the invitation of the then United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan to develop guidelines and recommendations on how to better integrate environmental, social, and corporate governance issues in asset management criteria. Since then, ESG considerations have become the new benchmark for the assessment of a company’s compliance with its inherent commitment to protecting the environment, promoting social values, and building a strong governance structure.

On the environmental scale, numerous environmental factors that encompass a company's impact on ecosystems, resource consumption, and carbon emissions are measured and assessed. The social considerations involve measuring how a company responds to issues such as employee well-being, community engagement, and diversity and inclusion. Finally, governance considerations seek to assess a company’s commitment and actions to building strong internal governance systems, ethical practices, and transparency among others.

By integrating ESG considerations into their operations, businesses are expected to proactively manage risks, enhance long-term sustainability, and contribute to the general well-being of society through reduced resource consumption, pollution mitigation, and ethical practices. ESG adoption marks a transition from a purely profit-centric approach to business evaluation based on the inherent purpose of companies and significantly reshaping the corporate landscape. This shift underscores the understanding that for example, a robust environment is intrinsic to a resilient and prosperous business ecosystem. Through the lens of ESG considerations, the statement of financial position is no longer the only measure of a business’ impacts, growth, and sustainability but also a business on the environment, social and governance issues have become equally important and imperative.

In essence, the goals of SDGs, CSR, and ESG in the corporate realm reflect a broader recognition between business activities and operations, environmental well-being, and positive societal growth. Although there are different focal points between the three concepts, their advocacy for sustainable development is prominent. The renewed attention given to SDGs, CSR initiatives, and ESG considerations underscores the growing consensus that businesses wield significant influence over global ecosystems and must shoulder their responsibility as stewards of society, its people, and the environment. And the following paragraphs will explore the intricate ways in which these approaches converge, synergize, and collectively contribute to the overarching inherent goals of fostering business growth and resilience in the corporate landscape.



The principles underlying these three concepts are rooted in sustainability, accountability, and ethical conduct. The SDGs are guided by the principles of leaving no one behind and fostering a planet that the future generation can inherit. CSR's principles lie in responsible stewardship of the environment, balancing the interests of diverse stakeholders, enhancing societal well-being, and conducting business with integrity. And ESG considerations rest on transparency, risk management, resource efficiency, labor standards, and diversity and inclusion.

The goals of these frameworks are intertwined with creating a prosperous and harmonious world. While SDGs aim to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all while serving as a roadmap for global progress, CSR initiatives seek to amplify positive social impact, foster community development, and fortify the reputation of businesses as responsible corporate citizens. Similarly, ESG considerations seek to enhance business resilience, minimize risk, and generate sustainable returns while stimulating innovation toward a more sustainable future.

These objectives cannot be described as a one-way street - they are multifaceted. SDGs call for partnerships, innovation, and policy alignment to drive systemic change globally, not limiting itself to a specific demographic. CSR objectives span from ethical supply chain management to supporting local communities and fostering an environment where businesses thrive alongside their stakeholders. CSR also focuses more on the decisions of the internal impact and its effect externally. ESG considerations on the other hand mandate integration into corporate strategies, a culture of sustainability, and the alignment of actions with societal needs and a balance governance system.

The convergence of these three frameworks plays a pivotal role in advancing sustainability, responsible business practices, and societal well-being. Basically, SDGs provide a universal framework for businesses to align their strategies, investments, and operations with global sustainability imperatives while CSR initiatives enable businesses to establish meaningful connections with communities, contributing to economic growth and social progress with the aim of nurturing goodwill that is essential in an interconnected world. On its part, ESG considerations guide organizations on how to internalize environmental, social and governance considerations into building resilient business models that are primed for the challenges of the future.

In the end, for a modern business, understanding, adopting, and embracing the considerations underlying SDGs, CSR, and ESG is not just an ethical imperative but a strategic one.



In today’s economic landscape, the adoption of SDGs, CSR, and ESG into corporate priorities is not only driven by ethical benefits but also by the opportunities and advantages businesses gain economically.

There are various reasons that compel businesses to contribute to sustainable practices and societal welfare. In recent times, one main reason has become serving the interest of consumers. Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of the impact of business activities on the environment and society. Businesses that incorporate the goals of SDGs demonstrate to the wider public, that they are committed to helping global challenges such as clean water and sanitation, gender equality, responsible consumption and production, and climate action.  Engaging in ethical business practices resonates deeply with stakeholders, engendering a sense of shared purpose and building trust within the community. As corporate citizens, businesses have an obligation to contribute to the well-being of the world they operate in, positioning themselves as responsible global players.

Furthermore, embracing SDGs, CSR and ESG goals and principles can substantially mitigate risks. By proactively addressing environmental vulnerabilities, supply chain risks, and employee well-being, businesses are better prepared to withstand market fluctuations and regulatory changes. A commitment to sustainable practices insulates a company from the reputational damage that could arise from negligence or short-sightedness. This risk management approach enhances a business's capacity to adapt to evolving market conditions.

These initiatives may seem like cost centers, but in reality, they pave the way for significant returns on investment. Long-term profitability is one of the standout advantages, as sustainable practices often lead to operational efficiencies, reduced waste, and optimized resource management. Companies embracing renewable energy, efficient supply chains, and waste reduction can lower their operating costs while demonstrating resilience in the face of resource scarcity and environmental disruptions.

Companies that actively contribute to sustainable development and social progress align their interests with the broader well-being of society. Beyond ethical considerations, embracing these initiatives can support a company's long-term financial performance. Sustainable practices can mitigate operational risks, enhance brand loyalty, and attract socially conscious investors, thereby creating a positive feedback loop where societal and economic gains reinforce one another.



Achieving a balanced point between profit-seeking and impact-driven goals requires strategic planning and commitment. The strategies to be adopted must consist of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives, and Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) considerations.

Businesses need to find the right strategies and skills to align SDGs, CSR, and ESG principles. Businesses need to recognize that a relationship between these three concepts can yield multifaceted benefits. By consciously implementing the principles of the concepts, businesses can foster positive societal impacts while simultaneously enhancing shareholder value. This cooperation can be a catalyst for growth, engendering a virtuous cycle where responsible practices attract conscientious customers, investors, and partners.

Businesses can incorporate these concepts in three main ways.  To start with, leadership commitment emerges as a cornerstone of successful integration. When high-level executives prioritize SDGs, CSR initiatives, and ESG principles, employees and the organization as a whole are also able to make commitments. Such commitment underscores the idea that these considerations are not merely unrelated but are essential parts of the company's identity. When leaders lead by example, employees are motivated to internalize and prioritize these values, translating them into everyday decisions and actions.

Stakeholder engagement forms another vital factor in effective integration strategies. Businesses no longer operate within a vacuum; they are part of complex ecosystems where interactions with stakeholders are interdependent on each other. Engaging stakeholders to understand their expectations, concerns, and needs not only fosters mutual understanding but also unlocks invaluable insights that can shape more impactful strategies. Through transparent and open dialogues, businesses can ensure that their integration efforts resonate with diverse perspectives, forging a stronger connection between corporate endeavors and societal aspirations. Clear goal-setting directs integration efforts.  Well-defined and measurable goals provide a roadmap for progress and a yardstick for assessing achievements. Striving for audacious yet achievable objectives communicates a company's ambition and dedication to its stakeholders. Additionally, publicly disclosing these goals can instill a sense of accountability and transparency, reinforcing the company's commitment to its integration agenda. Central to successful integration is the ideal alignment of these concepts with a company's core values and mission. By embedding SDGs, CSR initiatives, and ESG considerations, into the core of the business, a congenial narrative emerges – one where each decision and action resonates with the company's character. This alignment is an authentic expression of purpose, enhancing the company's reputation and resonating with consumers who increasingly favor brands that exemplify genuine social and environmental responsibility.

In today's competitive business arena, effective integration strategies that unite SDGs, CSR commitments and ESG considerations with core business strategies offer a unique opportunity. By prioritizing leadership commitment, stakeholder engagement, clear goal-setting, and alignment with core values, businesses can position themselves as beacons of positive change while securing their own future prosperity. In a world where responsible business is synonymous with smart business, integration should be seen as not just a strategy but a transformational journey toward a better, more resilient, and prosperous future. They are not just a means to tick boxes on a checklist; they are a pathway to sustainable success that appeals to a new generation of consumers, investors, and partners.



The journey toward understanding the outcomes of SDGs, CSR, and ESG, and their potential as corporate priorities is ongoing. The evidence of positive impacts, from environmental preservation to societal well-being, continues to accumulate. The ethical responsibility and economic advantages of prioritizing these initiatives are becoming increasingly evident. Striking a balance between financial gains and societal contributions requires commitment and strategic foresight. The need to determine which of them should take precedence as a corporate priority is unnecessary. Instead, businesses should seamlessly strategize to blend these concepts into their objectives rather than prioritizing one over the other.


KAREN ADAARE is an Associate at SUSTINERI ATTORNEYS PRUC ( Karen specializes in Natural Resources including Mining, Oil & Gas, and Energy, Sustainability practice covering ESG, Climate Change, and Renewables, as well as Dispute Resolution. She welcomes views on this article via