Valentineâ€™s Day occurs every February 14. Across the United States and in other places around the world, candy, flowers and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine. But who is this mysterious saint and where did these traditions come from?
Find out about the history of Valentineâ€™s Day, from the ancient Roman ritual of Lupercalia that welcomed spring to the card-giving customs of Victorian England.
The Legend of St. Valentine
The history of Valentineâ€™s Dayâ€“and the story of its patron saintâ€“is shrouded in mystery. We do know that February has long been celebrated as a month of romance, and that St. Valentineâ€™s Day, as we know it today, contains vestiges of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition. But who was Saint Valentine, and how did he become associated with this ancient rite?
READ MORE:Â Who Was the Real St. Valentine?
The Catholic Church recognizes at least three different saints named Valentine or Valentinus, all of whom were martyred. One legend contends that Valentine was a priest who served during the third century in Rome. When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men. Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When Valentineâ€™s actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death. Still others insist that it was Saint Valentine of Terni, a bishop, who was the true namesake of the holiday. He, too, was beheaded by Claudius II outside Rome.
Other stories suggest that Valentine may have been killed for attempting to help Christians escape harsh Roman prisons, where they were often beaten and tortured. According to one legend, an imprisoned Valentine actually sent the first â€œvalentineâ€ greeting himself after he fell in love with a young girlâ€“possibly his jailorâ€™s daughterâ€“who visited him during his confinement. Before his death, it is alleged that he wrote her a letter signed â€œFrom your Valentine,â€ an expression that is still in use today. Although the truth behind the Valentine legends is murky, the stories all emphasize his appeal as a sympathetic, heroic andâ€“most importantlyâ€“romantic figure. By theÂ Middle Ages, perhaps thanks to this reputation, Valentine would become one of the most popular saints in England and France.
Origins of Valentineâ€™s Day: A Pagan Festival in February
While some believe that Valentineâ€™s Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentineâ€™s death or burialâ€“which probably occurred around A.D. 270â€“others claim that the Christian church may have decided to place St. Valentineâ€™s feast day in the middle of February in an effort to â€œChristianizeâ€ the pagan celebration ofÂ Lupercalia. Celebrated at the ides of February, or February 15, Lupercalia was a fertility festival dedicated to Faunus, the Roman god of agriculture, as well as to the Roman founders Romulus and Remus.
READ MORE:Â 6 Surprising Facts About St. Valentine
To begin the festival, members of the Luperci, an order of Roman priests, would gather at a sacred cave where the infants Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were believed to have been cared for by a she-wolf or lupa. The priests would sacrifice a goat, for fertility, and a dog, for purification. They would then strip the goatâ€™s hide into strips, dip them into the sacrificial blood and take to the streets, gently slapping both women and crop fields with the goat hide. Far from being fearful, Roman women welcomed the touch of the hides because it was believed to make them more fertile in the coming year. Later in the day, according to legend, all the young women in the city would place their names in a big urn. The cityâ€™s bachelors would each choose a name and become paired for the year with his chosen woman. These matches often ended in marriage.
Valentineâ€™s Day: A Day of Romance
Lupercalia survived the initial rise ofÂ ChristianityÂ but was outlawedâ€”as it was deemed â€œun-Christianâ€â€“at the end of the 5th century, when Pope Gelasius declared February 14 St. Valentineâ€™s Day. It was not until much later, however, that the day became definitively associated with love. During the Middle Ages, it was commonly believed in France and England that February 14 was the beginning of birdsâ€™ mating season, which added to the idea that the middle of Valentineâ€™s Day should be a day for romance. The English poetÂ Geoffrey ChaucerÂ was the first to record St. Valentineâ€™s Day as a day of romantic celebration in his 1375 poem â€œParliament of Foules,â€ writing, â€œâ€œFor this was sent on Seynt Valentyneâ€™s day / Whan every foul cometh there to choose his mate.â€
Valentine greetings were popular as far back as the Middle Ages, though written Valentineâ€™s didnâ€™t begin to appear until after 1400. The oldest known valentine still in existence today was a poem written in 1415 by Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife while he was imprisoned in theÂ Tower of LondonÂ following his capture at theÂ Battle of Agincourt. (The greeting is now part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in London, England.) Several years later, it is believed that KingÂ Henry VÂ hired a writer named John Lydgate to compose a valentine note to Catherine of Valois.
READ MORE:Â Momentous Kisses Through History
Who Is Cupid?
CupidÂ is often portrayed on Valentineâ€™s Day cards as a naked cherub launching arrows of love at unsuspecting lovers. But the Roman God Cupid has his roots in Greek mythology as theÂ Greek godÂ of love, Eros. Accounts of his birth vary; some say he is the son of Nyx and Erebus; others, of Aphrodite and Ares; still others suggest he is the son of Iris and Zephyrus or even Aphrodite and Zeus (who would have been both his father and grandfather).
According to the Greek Archaic poets, Eros was a handsome immortal played with the emotions of Gods and men, using golden arrows to incite love and leaden ones to sow aversion. It wasnâ€™t until the Hellenistic period that he began to be portrayed as the mischievous, chubby child heâ€™d become on Valentineâ€™s Day cards.
Typical Valentineâ€™s Day Greetings
In addition to the United States, Valentineâ€™s Day is celebrated in Canada,Â Mexico, the United Kingdom, France and Australia. In Great Britain, Valentineâ€™s Day began to be popularly celebrated around the 17th century.Â
By the middle of the 18th, it was common for friends and lovers of all social classes to exchange small tokens of affection or handwritten notes, and by 1900 printed cards began to replace written letters due to improvements in printing technology. Ready-made cards were an easy way for people to express their emotions in a time when direct expression of oneâ€™s feelings was discouraged. Cheaper postage rates also contributed to an increase in the popularity of sending Valentineâ€™s Day greetings.
Americans probably began exchanging hand-made valentines in the early 1700s. In the 1840s, Esther A. Howland began selling the first mass-produced valentines in America. Howland, known as the â€œMother of the Valentine,â€ made elaborate creations with real lace, ribbons and colorful pictures known as â€œscrap.â€ Today, according to the Greeting Card Association, an estimated 145 million Valentineâ€™s Day cards are sent each year, making Valentineâ€™s Day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year (more cards are sent atÂ Christmas). Women purchase approximately 85 percent of all valentines.